The eye is divided into several pieces, namely the outer piece and the inner piece, on the outer organs there are eyelashes, eyebrows and eyelids. While the functions of the organs outside the eye are as follows:
- Eyelashes function to filter the light that will be received.
- Eyebrows function to prevent sweat from entering the eyeball.
- Eyelids function to cover and protect the eye.
While the organs in the eye have a more complex function and consist of several pieces, including the cornea, sclera, pupil, iris, lens of the eye, retina or membranes and the optic nerve. while for the following functions, namely the meaning and explanation:
- The cornea serves to protect the sensitive piece behind it, helping the eye focus images on the retina. Is the outermost part of the eyeball that gets light from a light source
- The sclera is the white part of the wall of the eye. The average thickness is 1 millimeter but in muscle irritation, it thickens to 3 millimeters.
- The pupil and the iris react to light from the cornea, the light will be transmitted to the pupil. The pupil determines the quantity of light that enters the deeper part of the eye. The pupil of the eye will widen if the room is dark, and will narrow if the room is bright. The width of the pupil is affected by the iris around it. The rainbow membrane functions as a diaphragm. This rainbow membrane is seen as a colored strip on the eye.
- The lens of the eye receives light from the pupil and transmits it to the retina. The function of the eye lens is to adjust the focus of light, so that light falls perfectly on the yellow spots of the retina. To see objects that are far away (light arriving from far away), the lens of the eye will thin out. Meanwhile, to see a friendly object (light arrives up close), the eye lens will thicken.
- The retina or meshwork is the part of the eye that is most sensitive to light, specifically the part of the retina called the yellow spot. After the retina, light is transmitted to the optic nerve.
- The optic nerve is a nerve in the eye that enters the cord and cone cells in the retina, to go to the brain.
Now, after you know the parts of the eye organ, it would be better if you also know some eye diseases that can cause damage to the eye, here are some diseases related to the visual organ, namely the eye:
- Myopia is a health disorder in the eyes of a person who is unable to see objects that are far away. Usually happens to students. Can be helped with concave lens glasses.
- Hypermetropia is a disorder in the eyes of a person who is unable to see objects that are close to the eye. Can be helped with convex lens glasses.
- Presbyopia is a disorder in which a person’s eyes cannot see objects that are close or far away. Can be helped by double-lensed glasses. Common in the elderly.
- Myopia and blindness mean that a person is unable to see anything at all. Blindness can be caused by heredity, or an accident. Babies born prematurely with a gestational age of less than 32 weeks, can also experience Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) and can experience visual disturbances to total blindness, if not treated immediately. Myopic means a person can only see dimly. People who are blind or nearsighted usually “read” using their fingers with aids in the form of Braille characters.
- Color blindness is a condition where a person cannot represent colors. Total color blindness is not able to distinguish colors at all, which can be seen only black, gray, and white (grey scale). Meanwhile, if you can not distinguish certain colors called partial color blindness. Color blindness is usually a hereditary disease, meaning that if a person is color blind, his child will also inherit the color blind gene, but not necessarily color blindness.
- Cataract is an eye disease in which the lens of the eye becomes opaque due to thickening, occurs in the elderly (elderly).
- Astigmatism is an irregularity of the curvature of the refractive surface of the eye which results in light not focusing on one point of the retina (yellow spot). Can be assisted with cylindrical glasses/refractive surgery.
- Night blindness is an eye disease caused by a lack of vitamin A in the eye. Patients usually cannot see at night only.
Tips for maintaining eye health
To avoid some disturbances or problems with the visual organs, here are some health tips as quoted from the health site Zeenews.com about how to maintain the health of your eyes:
Healthy and balanced diet
Diet plays an important role in maintaining the health of your eyes. Take Vitamin A, Eat green leafy vegetables, fruits, eggs and almonds to keep your eyes sharp and healthy. Fish such as tuna, salmon and other oily fish. These foods are rich in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, zinc, and vitamins C and E. Studies show these nutrients can help ward off age-related problems such as macular degeneration, vision and cataracts.
Protect eyes from UV rays
UV rays or ultraviolet rays are often an important concern that can cause eye health problems. Ultraviolet rays are divided into two, namely UV A and UV B. Try to use glasses to protect your eyes from the sun when going out or requiring you to work or do activities for a long time in the hot sun. Too much UV exposure can cause cataracts and macular degeneration.
In order to keep our eyes healthy, they need regular exercise just like any other muscle in the body. Some of the exercises that will help keep your tired eyes healthy and clear then follow these tips:
Sit peacefully with your eyes closed and place your previously rubbed hands until your palms are warm. Place or close your eyes by using your palms gently over your eyes and let your eyes relax. Do this every time you spend a lot of time in the sun, watch TV for a long time, when you are exposed to sharp light and especially when you work long hours in front of the computer. Apart from this, you can also rest your eyes by looking down for 20 seconds after every 20 minutes you are in front of the computer. Also, try to stand up and take a 15 minute break after every 2 hours.
Regular eye checks
An eye exam is an important part of every individual and not just for people who have problems with their visual acuity. With regular inspections of your eyes, it will be quickly detected if you suffer from disorders of this visual organ and quickly get the right treatment if problems or health problems are found in your eyes. It should be a part of the normal health investigation routine to enjoy healthy eyesight. In addition, regular eye care can also help detect other systematic health problems so as to avoid further complications in the future.